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Table 1 Life cycle inventory for Wanneroo GWTP for 1 m3 of water production and delivery

From: Improving the carbon footprint of water treatment with renewable energy: a Western Australian case study

Inputs Reference quantity Unit Calculated quantity Unit per m3 References
Extraction process
Energy for pumping system 0.041 kWh/kL 0.041 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Pre-treatment process
Spray aeration 0.012 kWh/kL 0.012 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
MIEX® resin 2.667 mL resin/year/person 2.8 mL Bourke et al. (2011)
Chlorine 4.800 mg/L 5.1 g Cadee et al. (2011)
Coagulation clarification
Alum 20.000 mg/L 0.2 kg Bourke et al. (2011)
Polymer 0.700 mg/L 0.74 g Cadee et al. (2011)
Energy for treatment 0.020 kWh/kL 0.02 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Energy for sludge handling 0.006 kWh/kL 0.007 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
NaCl solution 90.000 g/L MIEX® resin 0.25 g Slunjski, Cadee and Tattersall (2011)
Filtration
Chlorine 2–10 mg/L 6.3 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2009)
Fluorine 0.7–1.2 mg/L 1.0 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2011)
Energy consumption 0.000079 kWh/kL 0.000079 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Distribution process
Energy consumption 0.318 kWh/kL 0.318 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)