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Table 2 Life cycle inventory for surface water treatment plant for 1 m3 of water production and delivery

From: Improving the carbon footprint of water treatment with renewable energy: a Western Australian case study

Inputs Reference quantity Unit Calculated quantity Unit per m3 References
Extraction process
Energy for pumping system 0.032 kWh/kL 0.032 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Pre-chlorination process
Chlorine 4.800 mg/L 5.05 g Cadee et al. (2011)
Flocculation and coagulation process
Alum 10–90 mg Fe3+/L 52.63 g Fe3+ Water Treatment Chemicals (2009)
Polymer 0.700 mg/L 0.74 g Cadee et al. (2011)
Energy for treatment 0.020 kWh/kL 0.020 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Energy for sludge handling 0.006 kWh/kL 0.0.006 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Sedimentation and filtration process
Lime 10–20 mg/L 15.8 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2011)
Chlorine 2–10 mg/L 6.3 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2009)
Fluorine 0.7–1.2 mg/L 1.0 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2011)
Energy consumption 0.00004 kWh/kL 0.00004 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Distribution process
Energy consumption 0.318 kWh/kL 0.318 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)