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Table 3 Life cycle inventory for seawater desalination plant via electrodialysis for 1 m3 of water production and delivery

From: Improving the carbon footprint of water treatment with renewable energy: a Western Australian case study

Inputs Reference quantity Unit Calculated quantity Unit per m3 References
Extraction process
Energy for pumping system 0.032 kWh/kL 0.032 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Pre-treatment process
Alum 10–90 mg Fe3+/L 62.5 g Fe3+ Water Treatment Chemicals (2009)
Polymer 0.700 mg/L 0.875 g Cadee et al. (2011)
Energy for treatment 0.020 kWh/kL 0.02 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Electrodialysis process
CR67, MK111 8.40 × 10−11 meq/g dry membrane 1.05 × 10−10 g Sadrzadeh and Mohammadi (2007, 442)
AR204SXR412 9.80 × 10−11 meq/g dry membrane 1.22 × 10−10 g Sadrzadeh and Mohammadi (2007, 442)
Energy for treatment 1.2–2.5 kWh/m3 2.3 kWh Pilat (2001, 388)
Brine 10–20 % 0.18 kL Pilat (2001, 388)
Post-treatment process
Chlorine 2–10 mg/L 6.4 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2009)
Fluorine 0.7–1.2 mg/L 1.0 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2011)
Lime 10–20 mg/L 15.9 g Water Treatment Chemicals (2011)
Energy consumption 0.00004 kWh/kL 0.00004 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)
Distribution process
Energy consumption 0.318 kWh/kL 0.318 kWh Goldstein and Smith (2002)