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Table 8 Price of the proposed virtual instrumentation system in comparison with that of traditional instruments

From: Low-cost virtual instrumentation of PV panel characteristics using Excel and Arduino in comparison with traditional instrumentation

   Price ($)
Proposed virtual instrumentation system based on the microcontroller Basic system  
Arduino UNO board 4.75 (www.aliexpress.com)
F031-06 voltage sensor module 0.74 (www.aliexpress.com)
INA169 current sensor module 3.30 (www.aliexpress.com)
  Total 8.79
With temperature and irradiance sensors 8.79
DS18B20 temperature sensor 2.72 (www.banggood.com)
TSL230BRD-TR 4,32 (www.mouser.com)
  Total 15. 83
  Type Price ($)
Traditional instruments Low-cost digital multimeters (www.aliexpress.com)
RM109 25.60
UNI-TUT61E 48.27
Intelligent digital multimeters  
FLUKE 725 (high precision of measurement) 2.906,00 (www.pce-instruments.com)
ET201 (low cost) 49.83 (www.aliexpress.com)
Oscilloscope  
LONGWEI L-5040 (normal oscilloscope) 304.55 (www.aliexpress.com)
PKT-1265 (intelligent oscilloscope) 438.12 (www.pce-instruments.com)
PCSU1000 (real-time measurement) 397.08 (www.pce-instruments.com)