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Table 4 Comparison of damping ratios—IEEE 14-bus system with wind and solar power

From: An enhanced particle swarm optimization algorithm for improving the renewable energy penetration and small signal stability in power system

Most associated states Damping ratio
Before maximization of wind and solar power After maximization of wind and solar power After optimization of damping ratio
vr1_Exc_1, e2q_Syn_2 0.983 0.985 1
omega_Syn_3, delta_Syn_3 0.324 0.307 0.324
e1q_Syn_1, vf_Exc_1 0.118 0.078 1
omega_Syn_2,delta_Syn_2 0.319 0.191 0.32
omega_Syn_4,delta_Syn_4 0.143 0.18 0.193
omega_Syn_1,delta_Syn_1 0.245 0.0757 0.521
e1q_Syn_2, vf_Exc_2 0.824 1 1